In preparation for this discussion, please use any additional scientifically reliable online or printed resources, and address the following (~600 words):
1.Define the concept of personâ€™s gender. What factors determine gender?
2.Define the concept of personâ€™s sex. What factors determine sex?
3. Based on what you have learned in this section, suggest at least two different reasons for a person to be â€œintersex.â€
4. Find scientifically reliable online or printed resources and describe what â€œtransgenderâ€ and â€œintersexâ€ mean. Are these concepts the same?
5. Based on what you have learned in this section, can one say that being an intersex and/or transgender is a choice?
6. Is our gender identity programmed by genetics or determined by environment?
7. Find three examples of human phenotypes determined strictly by genetics (cite references).
8. Find three examples of organism phenotypes where environmental factors â€œoverrideâ€ genetics (cite references).
Respond with 5-7 sentence back to two classmates
Gender refers to how someone sees themselves in terms of either traditional or nontraditional roles related to masculinity, femininity, both, or neither. Gender often correlates with sex but does not always. Many individuals identify their gender by their sex, however, many people also identify as a different gender, whether it be male, female, non-binary, or otherwise.
Sex generally refers to the biological makeup of an individual regarding chromosomes, sex hormones, and reproductive organs. Males have XY sex chromosomes while females have XX sex chromosomes. Males also produce higher levels of testosterone, while females have higher levels of estrogen and progesterone.
One reason an individual may be classified as intersex is a combination of both male and female sex organs. If someone is born with both testicular and ovarian tissues, they may be considered to be intersex (Planned Parenthood, 2020). People can also have sex hormone variations, such as XXY, which would lead to them being intersex (Planned Parenthood, 2020).
Transgender refers to individuals whose gender identity does not match with the sex they were assigned at birth (Alpert, CichoskiKelly, & Fox, 2017). Intersex means that an individual has anatomical characteristics that differ from the standard definitions of male and female (Alpert, CichoskiKelly, & Fox, 2017). These concepts are sometimes used interchangeably, however, they are completely different. Transgender individuals identify with a gender that is different from their initial biological sex, while intersex individuals exist somewhere in the middle of the biological sex spectrum due to anatomical differences in their reproductive organs, sex hormones, or chromosomal makeup.
Being intersex is not a choice. Intersexuality results from the organic condition of oneâ€™s biological makeup and therefore has nothing to do with choice. Being transgender is also not a choice. Just as one does not choose who they are attracted to, one also does not choose how they relate to or identify with the biological circumstances they were born with.
Gender identity is heavily influenced by genetics. Testosterone exposure level in the womb is correlated to oneâ€™s gender identity. Individuals who have higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure generally identify as masculine, while lower testosterone exposure correlates with femininity (Roselli, 2018). These often also correlate with biological sex, however, there are many outliers. These outliers often end up identifying with a gender that is different than the sex they were assigned at birth. There is still an ongoing debate surrounding the role of oneâ€™s environment and how it relates to gender expression. While there is no evidence conclusive enough to settle the argument for either side, there are case studies that both support and reject this hypothesis (Roselli, 2018).
One example of a phenotype determined strictly by genetics is earwax type. Depending on a specific gene variation, earwax can be dry or wet, and genetics are the sole contributor to this (McDonald, 2011). Eye color is another phenotype determined purely by genes (White & Rabago-Smith, 2011). Finally, hair color is a phenotype determined by genes. Multiple genes affect the amount of melanin in hair, which gives it its color (National Institutes of Health, 2020).
One way that gene expression can be affected by environment occurs with metabolism. Metabolism is linked to genotype, however, metabolism can change due to factors such as food intake and climate (Lobo, 2008). Another example of a phenotype being altered due to environment is hair loss. Hair loss and retention has a high genetic component, but can be compounded by factors such as stress. Regardless of genetic predisposition, hair loss occurs more frequently in subjects who are under high levels of stress (Choi et al., 2017). Hair color in animals can also be affected by environmental factors. In warm conditions, Himalayan rabbits develop coats of fur that are completely white. However, when born and raised in conditions below 20 degrees celsius, the rabbitâ€™s fur gains a darker color (Lobo, 2008).
1)Gender is mostly based upon self-indinification of an individual, it is psychological in nature based upon how person presents them self on to the world, in correlation with societal terms such man or woman and boy or girl. Factors in gender determination are biological, psychological and sociological. sociological example would be gender roles, mannerism, speech patterns, social recognition, and behavior traits.
2) The biological sex of a individual is determined at the time of birth and is based upon multiple factors, such as chromosomes, gonads, hormones, internal reproductive anatomy, and genitalia.
3)There are gene variant forms or mutation that can cause a individual to be intersexual like chromosomal issues,there are prenatal hormone disruption such as ovarian tumors that cause intersexual development.
4) transgender is when a persons gender is different from the one traditionally associated with their biological anatomy or their legally determined gender at birth. A individual who is intersex was born with a variation in their sexual or reproductive anatomy and an is biologically both sexes.
5)No intersex and transgender is not a choice, an intersex person was is born with both biological attributes of both sexes and a transgender persons brain is wired to be the sex opposite from their biological (anatomical sex), example a biological female with male brain wiring will usually identify with terms man or boy for their gender identity.
6)Possibly a bit of both, their is some connection between genetics when it comes to transsexual persons. In the case of biological males who identify as female it is believed to have some connection to a genetic glitch regarding androgen receptors ability to bind to testosterone which would cause reduction of signaling of androgen receptors causing lack of effect on primary and secondary sexual characteristics and lead to feminized brain do to low testosterone cause the brain to not be able to fully go through masculinization. Environmental factors would be social openness towards the idea or concept of transgender identity, in reaction causing more people to not repress or hide their true believed identity
7) phenotypes determined by genetics can be hair, color, skin color, eye color, and hair texture
8) Off the top my head I can think of what we commonly see during the summer, a person who is genetically prone to have fair skin becomes dark in exposure to sunlight, or when lack of something such as food supply affect average growth and development of certain species, a certain species may become smaller over time do to lack of food supply, or for example many who people who’s ancestor have lived in mountainous regions adapted in response to low oxygen levels and mountainous terrain by being shorten in stature than other people living at lower elevations, this is seen among the Andean Quechua people in Peru.
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